The invention of Vehicles is
one of the big human achievement. We used petrol, diesel cars. But, In view of
its side effects and environmental crisis, our automobile industry is turning
towards the Electric Vehicle. The world’s first auto vehicle was ran in 1885.
The maximum speed of this vehicle was less than 20 kilometers per hour. Along
with changing time auto vehicles are running more than 400 kilometers per hour.
Now the round has changed. The era is shifting towards Electric Vehicle. The
electric vehicle has been developed as a sunrise industry. Electric Vehicles
are powered by batteries which cause very low pollution. After 2008, many
governments have given tax relaxation and subsidies to local authorities and
countries to help the electric vehicle market grow and reduce global warming.
Let’s know about the Electric Vehicles:


1. What is Electric Vehicle (EV)

 Electric Vehicles are powered
by electricity. They contain electric motors and controllers. It has a battery
which is charged with electricity. After being charged, it covers the distance
according to the capacity of the battery.

1.1 How Electric Vehicle works 

The Electric Vehicle does not
have a lot of moving parts like an IC Engine. It consists a multicellular
battery and induction motor. There is an inverter to convert the DC power of
the battery to AC power. There is an arrangement of a gearbox to bring the speed
of the motor to the wheels. Power from the battery goes to the inverter.
 The AC current from the inverter goes to the
induction motor. And from this way the motor rotates and vehicle runs.

1.2 Why we need to use Electric

In today’s era, there is a
huge problem of pollution, due to which the environmental crisis has been
increased day by day. So that health issues are increasing. On the other hand,
due to the rising of petrol prices have affected the governments of all
countries as well as the common man. This has led to financial crisis over any
country. Given these reasons, we needed a technology that could beat all these
reasons. The solution of all these came in front of us in the form of Electric
Vehicle which is less expensive along with maintaining environmental balance.




2. Benefits of Electric
Vehicles / Advantage

2.1 Low Cost  

As we know, Electric
Vehicles are powered by electricity, so there is no need of any fuel. We have
to import petrol and diesel from another country which is quite expensive,
which makes a difference to the economy of the country and also loosens the
pockets of the common man.



 2.2 Less Air Pollution


  Fuel-based vehicles produce
very high emissions, causing environmental pollution, but electric vehicles are
environmentally friendly. Therefore, if the emission is zero then the
environmental pollution will also be less.

There is no ignition process in an
electric vehicle. Therefore, these vehicles do not emit gases so that environment
is not polluted.



 2.3 Less noise pollution 

The electric vehicle moves
silently. Therefore, the noise level during operating of these vehicles is much
lower than that of conventional IC engine driven vehicles, hence the noise pollution
is very less.



 2.4 Charge at home 

 You can charge Electric
Vehicle at your home itself. A lot of electric vehicles can be charged in 5 to
12 hours. You don’t need to go to the filling station for this. We can travel
upto hundreds of kilometers after being fully charged. We can also use fast
charger. It would charge the vehicle very quickly.



 2.5 Low Maintenance Cost 

Maintenance cost of electric
vehicles is quite low. Like fuel-based vehicles, it does not have engine oil,
filter etc. which reduces the service cost considerably.



 2.6 Cost Effective 

It is much cheaper to drive an
electric vehicle than a car with an engine. They cost very little on per
kilometers. We can charge electric vehicles at home. On the other hand, one has
to go to the filling station to fill the fuel engine.



 2.7 Higher Efficiency 

An Electric Vehicle is much
more efficient than petrol or diesel vehicle. The efficiency of Electric
Vehicle is around 90% as compare to IC engine vehicles.



3. Safety 

The probability of an accident in an
electric vehicle is one in 12 crores, while the fuel vehicles have one in 2
crores. So the Electric vehicle is more reliable in terms of safety.






 4. Limitations of Electric


 4.1 High Price 

The manufacturing cost of
electric vehicle is higher than the fueling vehicles. After a few years of use,
its battery needs to be replaced.

New discoveries are now being made on the
batteries of electric vehicles. Currently it is very expensive in the market.


 4.2 Low Range

 Range of an Electric Vehicle is
its once charged the distance covered by these vehicles. EV can cover a limited
distance on a single charge as compared to fuel vehicle. We need to charge it
again. Their range is much less as compared to fuel vehicles.


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