Components of Electric Vehicle (EV)

When the electric vehicle is running
on the road, the battery is supplying the electrical energy i.e. input level is
battery. when battery is supplying the electrical energy, we need to control
that electrical energy so that we can control the speed of motor, Overall we
can control the speed of
 our vehicle.
And this whole process is turned with the help of controller. This controller
providing the electrical energy to electrical motor. As a result our vehicles
run on the road. So,main components of electric vehicle are:



3.Electric Motor


Components of Electric Vehicle (EV)

Let’s discuss about these components:

 1. Battery 

we are taking in context of the electric vehicle, the battery which is used for traction
purpose is also known as
battery. It is the secondary type of battery that means
  this battery is rechargeable and if we are
comparing it with IC engines just replaced the fuel tank by battery
pack. Battery stores the electrical energy and provides it when it is needed.


 2. Control unit

 It is also known as EV control unit.
This unit controls the vehicle dynamics based on the information from various
ev components like
Invertor, Battery Management Unit(BMU) and many more things. AS the name suggests, it is a unit, it is not made up of any single
component so which component make this unit and these components are
Inverters, DC-DC Converters and vehicle control unit.Let us disuss them one by one:


2.1 Inverters

 Why Inverters is required?

  We are using our battery to give the supply to
our motor but the output of every battery is DC and the supply which our motor
requires is AC so we need to convert that DC
 into AC and inverter does this job very well.
If your inverter is of bi-directional category, its functions are doubled. This is not only
converting your DC into AC but it is also converting the AC into DC when it
comes to regenerative braking.


2.2 DC – DC Converters

 We are using our battery to supply
the motor and run our vehicle. But the battery is not only mean to supply the
motor but we have other auxiliaries as well our Speed Controller, Fuel
 many other controller displays
light and many more things which are electronic devices and they works on
the level of 12 volt and the output of our battery is quite higher than this 12
volt level so we required low voltage DC-DC
Converter which convert this high voltage battery output to 12 volt
limit so that we can supply it to our auxiliaries.


  2.3 Vehicle control unit(VCU)

 It is the administrative unit
because it administers the operations and distribution of power at any given

 How it works:

  It has microcontroller which can change the
current level or which indirectly affect the working mechanism and this Vehicle
Control Unit is mainly used for other to increase the mechanical performance of
your vehicle to suit the operator’s driving style. Inverters, Converters and Control
Unit these are the components of overall control unit or we can say ECU.

 other components of EV are:


 Charger is a charging element which
gets the electrical energy from external sources such as grid or solar plants
or any sources other things and it provides the energy to our battery the
energy which we are getting from the outer source is in the form of AC and
this  AC is converted to DC and then it is fed to our battery to store the

 We have two types of charger

1.On Board Chargrs

2.Off Board Chargers


On Board Chargers:

These chargers are already installed
in Electric vehicle.

Off Board Chargers:

These chargers are not already
installed in Electric vehicles.


3.Electric Motor

 This is a device which converts
electrical energy into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy in the form of
rotational motion and majority of cases and if you compare it with the IC
engine vehicles just replace the IC engine with electric motors. Electric motors
keeps the quite and comfortable operation compared to conventional
vehicles. Electric Motors  are less noisy
and are  having less vibration compared to IC engines.



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